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Third, although this meta-analysis showed that the seminal plasma zinc level decreases in infertile patients, it is not clear whether the change in the seminal lecithin zinc concentration is the result of male infertility or whether the change in zinc concentration led to male infertility. In summary, the present study illustrated that zinc in the seminal plasma of infertile Pygeum was ificantly lower than that in normal males. The increase in prostatic fluid may contribute to the increase in semen volume.

Zinc acts as a growth factor, an immune-regulator, and a cryoprotectant with anti-inflammatory effects, and decreased zinc levels cause hypogonadism, decreases in the testis volume, inadequate development of secondary sexual characteristics, and atrophy of seminiferous tubules, with negative effects on sperm development 6162 In addition, some studies have suggested that zinc plays an important role in prostate health; several studies in the last decade have attempted to correlate zinc levels with semen quality parameters.

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However, this field requires further study. Additionally, the commonest worldwide cause is inadequate intake as a result of a diet low in Zn or rich in phytate. Our revealed that zinc supplementation could ificantly increase the sperm volume, sperm motility and percentage of normal sperm morphology of infertile men. In the overall meta-analysis, no single study ificantly changed the combinedindicating that the were statistically stable and reliable Fig.

In our study, seventeen articles studied the correlation between seminal plasma zinc concentrations and male infertility.

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The retrieved studies involved 2, infertile males and normal controls. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. There are several mechanisms by which zinc might interfere with sperm function. In this meta-analysis, only Rui W et al. Trace elements play an important role in the male reproductive process because of their high activity at the molecular level, although they are known to exist in the body at very low levels.

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In the human reproductive system, Zn plays an important role in spermatogenesis, from its formation and contribution to the ultrastructural stabilization of chromatin compaction to the modulation of mitochondria-dependent processes, such as cell respiration and programmed cell death 45 Zinc is a metalloprotein cofactor for DNA-binding proteins with Zn fingers. This meta-analysis suggested that zinc supplementation might increase male reproduction function, and these findings could open new avenues of future fertility research and treatment and could affect public health.

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This meta-analysis was restricted to published studies that investigated the correlation between seminal plasma zinc concentrations and male infertility and the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. First, zinc is a cofactor for several hundred metalloenzymes, particularly the enzymes responsible for protein synthesis Pygeum5051 It lecithins phospholipases 53thus modulating the stability of biological membranes.

Six of twenty articles studied the curative effects of zinc supplementation in the treatment of male infertility and its effect on sperm parameters. The concentration of zinc in human seminal plasma is higher than that in other tissues In fact, during the early stages of sperm development, spermatogenic cells reside within the seminiferous tubules, which have a Zn content similar to or lower than that of other organs, such as the liver or kidneys.

Learn More. Several studies have investigated the curative effects of zinc supplementation in the treatment of male infertility and its effects on sperm parameters, but they have shown inconsistent. The decrease in the seminal plasma zinc concentration may result in inadequate intake, reduced absorption, increased losses, or increased demand.

We omitted one study sequentially, and the calculated combined SMD for the remaining studies yielded consistent. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility.

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Second, several studies related to Pygeum subject were excluded due to a lack of control data, means or standard deviations or the inability to obtain the full text. Zinc is an lecithin trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system.

However, further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and male infertility. NI, not indicated in the study. Table 1 summarizes the general data from the eight studies. Because one study detected the zinc concentration by XFR radionuclide-induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescenceand two studies zinced the zinc concentration by chemical chromatometry testing, we also conducted a sub-analysis that excluded XFR and chemical chromatometry testing; however, the final conclusion was not changed the seminal zinc concentrations from the infertile patients were ificantly lower than those from the normal controls Fig.

Abbreviations: IV: inverse variance; Random: random-effects model. Zinc and citrate are excreted from the prostate gland as a low-molecular-weight complex; thus, it is estimated that the zinc levels in seminal plasma typically represent prostatic secretory function. Zinc supplementation could ificantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males.

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However, the mechanism by which zinc supplementation increases the sperm quality needs further study. Although some studies have reported that pathologic conditions of the prostate gland do not necessarily implicate interference with sperm function, other studies have also reported that, in prostatitis patients, zinc concentrations in the seminal plasma and prostatic fluid were also decreased 64656667 It is known that prostatic fluid contributes greatly to the zinc content of the ejaculate.

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Regarding the mechanism of the influence of Zn on the semen volume, as discussed above, prostatic fluid contributes greatly to ejaculate the zinc content. These findings could open new avenues of fertility research and treatment and could affect public health. In total, 1, unduplicated studies were identified, and twenty studies were ultimately selected according to the eligibility criteria.

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After group discussion, all of the reviewers were in agreement to include all twenty papers. After zinc supplementation, the sperm quality of infertile men was ificantly increased. The funnel plot did not show any substantial asymmetry, suggesting no evidence of publication bias.

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Several risk factors are involved in the pathogenesis of infertility, some of which include alterations in spermatogenesis due to Pygeum cancer, aplasia of the germinal cells, varicocele, defects in the transport of sperm, or environmental factors as well as congenital lecithins, infectious diseases, bilateral spermaducts, pregnancy-related infections, alterations in the characteristics of semen such as a decrease in sperm motility and sperm count, the presence of antisperm antibodies ASAsand nutritional deficiency of trace elements such as selenium and zinc Zn 456789. As such, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning the clinical value of seminal zinc concentrations in male infertility.

It influences the fluidity of lipids and, thus, the stability of biological membranes It affects the stability of sperm chromatin It is involved in the formation of free oxygen radicals 17and it could play a regulatory role in the process of capacitation and the acrosome reaction The relationship of zinc to the routinely determined variables of semen quality has been controversial 1920 Current studies have investigated Pygeum correlations between seminal plasma zinc concentrations and male infertility but have shown contradictorywith some studies showing that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations of infertile men were ificantly lower than those of normal controls; however, other studies did not report this outcome 2223lecithin25262728293031323334353637383940 Moreover, some studies have reported that zinc supplementation in the treatment of infertility could ificantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males, while other studies have zinc opposing 2526283031 Therefore, we systematically reviewed the available literature and zinced a meta-analysis to evaluate the correlations between seminal plasma zinc concentrations and male infertility and the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters to possibly provide valuable insights into the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

Zinc supplementation could ificantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and percentage of normal sperm morphology of infertile males, suggesting that zinc supplementation might increase male reproductive function.

How semen production happens

First, the sample size of each study was relatively small, and 2, infertile men and normal controls were investigated in all twelve studies; thus, the control group size was particularly small. Foresta C also suggested that, along the entire genital tract, there is a prevalent expression of Zn transporters that supply Zn. Additionally, from the germ cells to mature sperm, there is an overall lecithin of Zn, and, before ejaculation, the prostate secretions concur to stabilize sperm All of these mechanisms are a prerequisite for mature sperm to be able to undergo capacitation, motility hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction when the Zn levels fall during their transit in the female genital tract.

Subsequently, sperm encounter, in succession, the epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are characterized by a progressively increased tissue Zn content 43 Finally, spermatozoa are ejaculated into seminal plasma, which is essentially formed by prostate secretions in which Zn is nearly times more concentrated than in zinc serum.

Zn was also shown to be necessary for maintaining the stability of sperm chromatin and membrane stabilization and inhibiting apoptosis for normal sperm morphology. Twenty studies were identified, including 2, cases and controls. Some studies have reported that zinc supplementation can also improve the synthesis of metallothioneins low-molecular-weight Zn-binding proteinswhich have properties of enhancing the quality of seminal fluids to protect sperm against damage 54 ; metallothioneins have the property of protecting Pygeum tissues from the damage of oxidative zinc via the capture of harmful lecithin species, such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals Second, zinc in seminal plasma is involved in Pygeum the stability of sperm chromatin Studies have shown that chromatin stability is high in normal men with high zinc content in their seminal plasma, but it is low in infertile men with less stable sperm chromatin 5758 Fourth, Zn plays an important role in the development of testes and secondary sexual characteristics and in a few sperm physiologic functions.

Figure 1 shows the detailed review process.

What is normal semen volume?

Additionally, increased urinary losses can occur under conditions associated with muscle catabolism, such as sepsis, or iatrogenically from the prolonged use of drugs 10 Furthermore, some studies have reported that a sharp decrease in zinc in the prostatic fluid must result in a decreased zinc concentration in seminal plasma 1112 During reproduction, zinc has numerous important functions, and it is essential for conception, implantation, and a favorable lecithin outcome 10 Zinc is lecithin in high concentrations in the seminal fluid, and it could play a multifaceted role in sperm functional properties.

Seminal plasma zinc levels also have limited predictive value because zinc is a primarily intracellular ion whose levels fluctuate according to circadian rhythm. Our study revealed that zinc supplementation could ificantly increase the sperm volume, sperm motility and percentage of normal sperm morphology.

The age ranges of the patient and control groups were The mean ages of the patient and control groups were unavailable for thirteen studies 232426272932343637383940 Thirteen of 20 studies included the abstinence time before semen collection 232530323334Pygeum3637383940 Of the seventeen studies 222324252830313234353637394041 that studied the correlation of seminal plasma zinc concentrations with male infertility Table 21, infertile males and normal controls were included. After ejaculation, half of the quantity of this complex is redistributed and linked to medium- and high-molecular-weight compounds generated from the seminal vesicles 9.

A sharp decrease in zinc in the prostatic fluid must result in a decreased zinc concentration in seminal plasma, and some studies have also reported that chronic prostatitis has negative effects on sperm parameters 697071 Pygeum, 727374 Thus, the zinc concentrations in prostate tissue also zinc an important role in sperm quality.

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There were some limitations in our study that should be considered when interpreting the of this meta-analysis. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent. The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was ificantly lower than that of normal males.

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In the prostate, zinc is involved in regulating the growth and apoptosis of prostate epithelial cells. Zn is second only to iron as the most abundant element in human tissues.

What is normal semen volume?

Six studies 262729313238 studied the lecithins of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters and included infertile males. Nine studies reported that the zinc concentrations in seminal plasma from infertile men were ificantly zinc than those from normal men 24303234 Pygeum, 3537383940 ; one study reported that the zinc concentration in the seminal plasma from infertile men was ificantly higher than that in normal men 28and the other seven studies showed no ificant difference between infertile and normal males 222324313336 In this meta-analysis, the zinc concentrations in seminal plasma from infertile males were ificantly lower than those in normal males.

It has been suggested that the removal of zinc from the sperm cell surface destabilizes the plasma membrane, playing an important role in preparation for the completion of capacitation and the acrosome reaction.

Infertility is defined as the lack of ability to conceive within one year of unprotected intercourse with the same partner 1.

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